Sporiji razvoj mozga samo je jedna od posljedica zanemarivanja u najranijem djetinjstvu

Otprije se zna da su zlostavljanje i zanemarivanje iskustva s najviše posljedica na razvoj dječjeg mozga. Visoka razina kortizola, kao posljedica izloženosti stresu, povezana je s uništavanjem moždanih stanica i narušavanjem veza unutar mozga.

Jedna od posljedica zanemarivanja, uskraćivanja i ostalih nedaća u najranijem djetinjstvu je sporiji razvoj mozga, što rezultira smanjenjem njegova volumena, ustanovili su britanski znanstvenici.

Grupa istraživača s londonskoga King’s Collegea pratila je razvoj usvojene djece koja su rano djetinjstvo provela u paklu rumunjskih sirotišta. Pokazalo se da je volumen njihova mozga za 8,6 posto manji nego kod ostalih posvojenika, piše BBC.

Kažu da je riječ o najuvjerljivijem dokazu o utjecaju negativnih posljedica na dječji mozak u razvoju.

Otprije se zna da su zlostavljanje i zanemarivanje iskustva s najviše posljedica na razvoj dječjeg mozga. Visoka razina kortizola, kao posljedica izloženosti stresu, povezana je s uništavanjem moždanih stanica i narušavanjem veza unutar mozga. Emocionalno zanemarivanje je uskraćivanje osnovnih emocionalnih potreba, poput pružanja utjehe ili sudjelovanja u djetetovu društvenom životu te stavljanje prevelikih očekivanja pred dijete, koja ono ne može ispuniti jer nije dovoljno zrelo ili jer takve situacije nisu sigurne za njega.

Rumunjska sirotišta

Šokantna situacija u rumunjskim sirotištima na vidjelo je izašla nakon pada komunističkog diktatora Nicolaea Ceausescua 1989. godine.

“Sjećam se tv snimki tih institucija…, bile su šokantne”, rekao je profesor Edmund Sonuga-Barke, voditelj studije koja prati razvoj te djece, najčešće vrlo bolesne, gotovo u potpunosti lišene fizičkog i psihičkog kontakta i bez igračaka.

Usvojena djeca čije je zdravstveno stanje proučavao tim prof. Sonuge-Barkea u takvim su ustanovama provela između dva tjedna i gotovo četiri godine. I ranije studije o djeci iz tih rumunjskih institucija koje su kasnije usvojile brižne obitelji iz Velike Britanije pokazale su da ona imaju problema s mentalnim zdravljem i u odrasloj dobi. Kod nekih se razvila podvojena osobnost, kod drugih autizam, kod nekih poremećaj pozornosti s hiperaktivnošću, kao i izostanak straha od nepoznatih osoba.

Najnovija britanska studija objavljena u časopisu Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences prva je obavila rezultate skeniranja mozga grupe zanemarene djece.

U studiji je sudjelovalo 67 rumunjskih posvojenika, a znanstvenici su razvoj njihova mozga uspoređivali s razvojem mozga 21 posvojenika kod kojih nije bilo zanemarivanja u ranome djetinjstvu.

Volumen mozga 8,6 posto manji

“Ono što smo otkrili prilično nas je šokiralo. Prije svega, ukupan volumen mozga kod rumunjskih je posvojenika bio prosječno za 8,6 posto manji nego kod ostalih. Drugo – što su više vremena proveli u rumunjskim sirotištima volumen njihova mozga bio je manji”, kazao je prof Sonuga-Barke. No utjecaj na razne regije mozga nije bio ujednačen.

Jedan od znanstvenika koji su sudjelovali u istraživanju, prof. Mitul Mehta je kazao da su on i kolege otkrili strukturalne razlike u trima moždanim regijama kod dviju skupina sudionika istraživanja. “Te su regije povezane s funkcijama poput organizacije, motivacije, primanja informacija i pamćenja.” Mehta kaže da bi ta otkrića mogla pridonijeti pojašnjenju nižega kvocijenta inteligencije i više stope ADHD-a kod odraslih osoba koje su u djetinjstvu sustavno zanemarivane.

No studija ne može objasniti na koji način zanemarivanje i uskraćivanje u najranijem djetinjstvu utječu na razvoj mozga, a to znači i da je vrlo teško ustanoviti kakve su posljedice ostalih trauma iz ranih godina života, poput zlostavljanja ili teškog života u izbjeglištvu.

Profesor Sonuga-Barke studiju smatra važnom jer prvi put na uvjerljiv način upućuje na utjecaj teškoća u ranom djetinjstvu na razvoj mozga.

Kaže kako posljedice nikada ne iščeznu te se osjećaju i poslije dugog razdoblja od dvadesetak godina, čak i nakon što se djeci pruži iznimna skrb i ljubav u posvojiteljskim obiteljima. Hina

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